Monday, 20 November 2017

Angelina Fildes nee Armitage (1868-1949): Tried at the Old Bailey

Angelina Armitage was born in 1868 in Saltash (near Plymouth), Cornwall. She was the second of seven children born to Edward Armitage and his wife Mary nee Willcocks. Edward (1839-1880) was an elder brother of my great grandfather Robert Melton Armitage (1846-1910). A profile of Edward’s life is on this blog. Angelina was a cousin of my grandmother Emma Ivall nee Armitage (1883-1970).

Angelina’s family moved to London in late 1870 / early 1871. The 1871 census shows Edward, aged 32, a police constable, living in Tottenham with his wife Mary (34) and children Angelina (3) and Thomas (7 months). Around 1875/6, Edward and his family moved to Hackney. In 1880, Edward died suddenly from a ruptured blood vessel, when Angelina was aged 12.

The 1881 census shows Edward’s widow Mary (aged 43, a laundress) with her children John (6) and Ernest (2) living at 5 Gainsboro Square, Hackney. His daughter Angelina (aged 13) was an orphan scholar at Cumberland House Orphanage, Greenleaf Lane, Walthamstow.

Angelina married Stuart Gladstone Fildes on 20 June 1889 at St Mary the Boltons Church, Kensington.
From the church marriage register

The occupation of Angelina’s father is given as “Inspector of Police”. He was actually a police constable. I wonder if they got married without telling their families, as the witnesses were not family members?

Stuart Gladstone Fildes was born in Chorlton, a suburb of Manchester. He is shown in the 1881 census aged 13, the only child of Thomas Fildes (41), a member of the Manchester Stock Exchange, and his wife Jessie Macblane Fildes nee Mackie (32). They were living at a house called Fairlawn in Lytham, Lancashire. Also listed at the address were a butler, a cook, a kitchen maid, two housemaids, a nurse, two grooms and a coach man. Thomas Fildes died in 1887 aged 47. His personal estate was declared as £25,660 for probate purposes. This is equivalent to about £12,000,000 now (estimated in relation to the earnings index). The house Fairlawn was advertised for sale after his death. It was clearly a large property with 4 entertaining rooms, 11 bedrooms, stabling for 8 horses and 4 acres of grounds. Thomas was a wealthy man!  His widow married Edmund William Birley in 1888.

It is perhaps surprising that Stuart, a man from a wealthy family, married Angelina, who was from a lower social class and must have been quite poor. They set up home at 15 Redcliffe Street, South Kensington but the marriage was not a success and Stuart left Angelina on 7 October 1889, only 15 weeks after their marriage. Angelina asked him to return but he refused. Later that year she applied to the courts for “restitution of her conjugal rights”. The case papers can be read on the Ancestry website. The Lichfield Mercury dated 7 November 1890 reported the outcome of the case (Angelina was the petitioner and Stuart the respondent).

A PRESTON MATRIMONIAL CASE.

The case of Fildes v Fildes was heard in the Divorce Court. It was a suit instituted by the wife, praying for the restitution conjugal rights. Mr. Middleton, who appeared for the petitioner, said the parties married on the 28th June, 1889, and after that they lived for some time in Redcliffe Street, South Kensington. The respondent, on the 7th of October last year, left the petitioner, and went to his mother's house at Preston. In the following November there was an interview between the husband and wife, and on the 5th of last December the petitioner went down to Preston and delivered into the hands of her husband the final notice required before the suit for restitution could be commenced. Upon its being served, the respondent disappeared, after which application was made for substituted service. There was an appearance under protest, but it was overruled by the learned President of the Divorce Division. The petitioner said that when she married Mr. Stuart Fildes she believed him to be a gentleman of independent means. On 7th of October last year he left home and she had never lived with him since. The last time she saw him she asked him to return to her, but he refused to so.
Mr. Justice Butt: What reason did give for leaving you?
Petitioner: He never gave any.
Mr. Justice Butt granted a decree as prayed.

Stuart’s disappearance was presumably an attempt to avoid allowing the suit to progress. “Substituted service” is the indirect delivery of legal documents to request an individual's presence in court. Stuart did not defend the case and costs were awarded against him.

Even though Angelina won the case, her husband did not return to her. In the 1891 census there is an Angelina Fieldes, aged 23, born in Cornwall, living in Cadogan Terrace, Hackney. Her occupation is described as “living on own means”.  Also listed with Angelina is Robert E A (the initials are unclear) Fieldes, a son aged 3, born in Hackney. There are no Robert Fi(e)ldes birth registrations that match this. The best candidate that I can find is a Robert Herbert Ernest Armitage birth registered Q4 1887 in Hackney. There is no mother’s maiden name registered with this birth, indicating that the mother was unmarried. I can find no marriage or death for this person and he does not appear with Angelina in any later records. Perhaps he was born to Angelina before she married and later given up for adoption? This is speculation on my part.

The 1891 census shows Stuart living as a boarder at Dyffryn Aled, Llansannan, Denbigh. This was a 25 bedroom house on remote moorland in North Wales. It sounds like he may have been in hiding to avoid complying with the court order.

Electoral registers show Angelina at 1 Kings Court Mansions, Fulham Road, London in 1900. The census in 1901 shows her aged 33, living alone in High Street, Yoxford, a village in Suffolk. Stuart was a visitor at a guest house in Sidmouth. The occupation for both was “living on own means”.

There were dramatic events in 1909. The item below was printed in The Barnet Press dated 29 May 1909.

SOLICITOR AND LADY
Exciting Interview.

Last week, a well dressed woman called at the London offices of Mr Charles Henry Cumberland, solicitor, who resides at The Firs, Bell Bar, Hatfield, and the interview took such a dramatic turn that the woman was charged before Mr Curtis Bennett at Bow Street Police Court with threatening to murder Mr Cumberland, and with unlawfully presenting a revolver at Police Constable McDonald, with intent to do him grievous bodily harm.
The woman, who gave her name as Angelina Fildes, declined to state her age, or give her address. Mr Cumberland was called on by the police to give evidence. He said he did not think it expedient to charge the defendant himself, as he did not consider that she was responsible for her actions. About 20 years ago he acted for the trustee of a settlement in which she was interested, and, under their directions, he paid her a regular allowance for about two years. The matter then passed out of his hands, and he had not seen her or had any communication with her from that time until the previous day, when she called his office by appointment. The trustees of the settlement had recently asked witness to act for them again, and that was why the defendant called at his office on Friday. When she entered witness said to her: “I presume you have come to give me instructions as to the mode of paying your allowance from the trustees?” She replied, “I have no instructions to give, and I will not be under your thumb again”. Witness told her that he had been instructed make certain payments to her, and he wished to meet her convenience in every way. She had previously been receiving her money direct from the trustees. Defendant said she would not have an allowance and demanded her husband’s address. Witness said he must decline to give it to her. Thereupon she left the chair in which she had been sitting, took two or three steps backward, and produced a revolver, which she pointed at witness. With the weapon held in that position she said: “I am a desperate woman, and I not going leave here until I get my husband's address.” Witness still refused to give it, and the defendant said: “You won’t?” In order to temporise, witness asked the defendant if she would be satisfied if he asked her husband to meet her at his office; but he did not catch her reply. He then called over the telephone his clerks’ office and asked them to go for the police. The defendant heard him, and said sarcastically: “Oh, I did not think you would have been so kind.” She remained leaning over the back of a chair, pointing the revolver at witness until P.C. McDonald entered. On seeing the revolver the officer said to her: “Put that thing down.” The defendant said: “Who are you talking to?” At the same time she turned the revolver towards the constable, who made a sudden rush and seized her by the hand. At that moment the revolver went off and the bullet entered the office wall. The defendant was then arrested.
The Magistrate: Have you any questions to put to this witness?
Defendant: No; I refuse to be under his thumb. He will allow me the income as long as he thinks proper, and then he will stop it.
Witness: I have no discretion
The defendant: You have. It is a discretionary allowance.
Witness: It is discretionary so far as the trustees are concerned. I have no discretion.
The defendant: For 19 years you have been my bitterest enemy. Nineteen years ago you did me a deadly wrong. Understand that.
P.C. McDonald said he did not actually seize the defendants hand when she refused to comply with his request to put the revolver down. He rushed towards her and knocked her hand up and at that moment the revolver went off.
Inspector Bailey said the revolver was loaded in four chambers, and contained one empty cartridge. When the charge was read to the defendant at the police station she said: “I did not resist at all. As regards Mr Cumberland, I meant it.”
The defendant was remanded.

Angelina’s case was heard at the Old Bailey on 23 June 1909.  “The Proceedings of the Old Bailey” website contains the court’s official record and says

FILDES, Angelina (41, no occupation), indicted for feloniously attempting to discharge a loaded revolver at Charles Henry Cumberland, with intent to do him grievous bodily harm; assaulting and resisting William McDonald, a Metropolitan police-constable, in the execution of his duty, pleaded Guilty of a common assault on Cumberland; Not guilty of assaulting the police-constable or of firing the pistol.

Prisoner has been in prison five weeks, during which time she has been under observation. The doctor reports that her mental condition is somewhat unstable, perhaps, and she seems to have been brooding over more or less imaginary wrongs; but she has undoubtedly benefited by her detention.

The case was reported by various newspapers including the Exmouth Journal. The edition dated 26 June 1909 reads

WOMAN WITH REVOLVER
Angelina Fildes, the woman who presented a revolver at Mr. Cumberland, a solicitor, in his office near Bedford Row the other week, was brought up at the Old Bailey on Wednesday charged with unlawfully resisting P.C. McDonald. The weapon was discharged as the constable was about to arrest Fildes.
Mr. Morris, for the defence said the prisoner was married in 1889, and five months later her husband left her, and she had not seen him since. She had received £8 10s weekly under trust in which Mr. Cumberland acted and she gained the impression from a letter written by him that the amount was about to be reduced. Her intention in going to the office with the pistol was to draw attention to her life, for she had been living an utterly lonely existence in little villages. She was prepared to promise to communicate with Mr. Cumberland only by letter in the future, and go to live with some friends at Brighton.
The Judge ordered her to be bound over in her own recognisances on the understanding that this course was taken.

Another paper reported that
During the hearing of the case, Mrs Fildes screamed and fell to the ground, being carried out hysterical.

Angelina’s weekly allowance of £8 10s in 1909 is equivalent to about £3,200 now, when related to the earnings index. This figure and the description of her as a “well dressed woman” in the report of her appearance at Bow Street Police Court indicate that Angelina was comfortably off.

In the 1911 census, Angelina (aged 43) and her mother Mary (73) are shown as visitors at 11 Denbigh Terrace, Notting Hill, the house of Angelina’s cousin Thomas William Armitage (39). I can’t find Stuart in the census.

Angelina’s elder sister Mary Emma Armitage died in 1925 aged 60 at St Thomas’s Hospital, Lambeth. Probate records show that administration of her estate (£341) was granted to Angelina Fildes.

Stuart Fildes of Madresfield Road, Malvern is listed as a dog breeder in the 1932 Kelly’s Directory of Worcestershire. His mother Jessie Macblane Birley died in 1938 aged 89. Her last address was Malvern Hotel, Malvern. Probate on her estate (£1,392) was granted to Stuart Gladstone Fildes, no occupation.

Angelina died on 26 November 1949 aged 81. Her address was The Gables, Perranporth, Cornwall. Angelina’s name appears in the burial register of Perranzabuloe Church (near Perranporth), so she is presumably buried in its churchyard. Administration of her estate (£2,748) was granted to Barclays Bank.

Stuart died in 1950 aged 82. His address was 45 Madresfield Road, Malvern and he died at Clanmere Nursing Home, Malvern. Stuart is buried at Great Malvern Municipal Cemetery and his gravestone is inscribed “Stuart Gladstone Fildes, born 18 Jan 1868, died 15 Dec 1950.” Probate records show that his estate was valued at £30,563.

Tuesday, 14 November 2017

The Funeral of Edward Armitage (1839-80)

Edward Armitage was an elder brother of Robert Melton Armitage (1846-1910), my great grandfather.

Edward died on 6 January 1880 aged 41 in Hackney. The 16 January 1880 edition of the Hackney and Kingsland Gazette contained a description of his funeral:

Funeral of a Police Constable

A much respected member of the Hackney Division of Police (Edward Armitage, 547), died rather suddenly in his garden, on the 6th inst., from rupture of a blood vessel, and on Tuesday the final obsequies were observed at the Manor Park Cemetery. The cortege, which started from the deceased's late residence, 26, Pratt Road, Clapton Park, consisted of hearse and mourning coach and the mourners included four inspectors, 11 sergeants, 110 constables; the Band of the Division and four officers of the Volunteer Fire Brigade, with engine also being present, and attracted considerable attention en route. The ceremony was a most impressive one, the officiating divine deducing from the sad event the awful uncertainty of life. The deceased, who leaves a widow and seven children, had fortunately taken the precaution of insuring himself and family in a society which very many of the men of the N and other divisions have also joined, viz., the Royal London Friendly Society, and thus spared the bereaved ones the pangs of poverty which invariably follow the demise of the improvident husband and father. There are certainly benefits to be derived by the families of deceased P.C.’s., still too much provision cannot made to enable a widow with a family to meet the stern realities of the world; and the above painfully sudden case should prove a stimulus to others to make a like provision.

Cemetery records show that Edward was buried in Manor Park Cemetery grave 100/328, which is shared with three other people not related to him.

A revised profile of Edward's life is on this blog.


Monday, 23 October 2017

George Henry Armitage : International Cap

My great uncle George Henry Armitage (1898-1936) played football for Charlton Athletic FC (see the item about his life on this blog). He was selected seven times to play for the England amateur team and once for the England professional team. I have donated one of his England amateur international caps, which was awarded for the match against Wales in the 1923-24 season, to the Charlton Athletic museum. They were pleased to receive it and tell me that they intend to display it at the museum.
One of George's caps, similar to the one donated.

Thursday, 14 September 2017

Armitage photos

Cheryl, a great granddaughter of Robert Melton Armitage (1874-1953), has seen this blog and kindly supplied me with photos of him, his wives and children. I have added them to the items on Robert and his son John James William Armitage (1906-41).

Saturday, 9 September 2017

My Armitage / Pinnuck Family History Blog Statistics

I started my Armitage / Pinnuck family history blog in 2012 and have now posted a total of 30 items (including this one). The blog is published using Google Blogger, which provides statistics on the number of people who have looked at it.

The total number of page views so far is 10,526, a respectable number. The largest number of page views came from Germany (2,443) followed by the UK (2,280), Russia (1,772), United States (1,422) and Australia (492). Why my blog has been viewed in Germany and Russia is not clear to me.

Items with the most page views are:
888 : George Henry Armitage (1898 - 1936), international footballer
747 : Robert Melton Armitage (1920-1993), train driver
362 : Stanley Thomas Armitage (1925-94), British Rail clerk
350 : Alfred George Armitage (1918-91), signalman and station master
346 : Robert Melton Armitage (1846 - 1910), milk carrier
252 : Gertrude Ellen Bull nee Armitage (1889 - 1978)
185 : William Armitage (1841-1926), soldier and gatekeeper
142 : David Pinnuck (1837-1922) and Edward George Pinnuck (1843-1927), immigrants to  Australia
86 : John James Armitage (1881-1953), decorated soldier
62 : William Frederick Armitage (1884-1940), warehouseman


Several people have seen my blog and contacted me with additional information and pictures, which I have added to the appropriate items.

Monday, 8 May 2017

Frances Elizabeth Kemp nee Pinnuck (1892-1930), Migrant to Canada

I posted an item on the life of Frances Elizabeth Kemp on my blog in January 2017. It was seen by Val, a great granddaughter of Frances. She has kindly supplied me with additional information and photos, which are included in the revised item below.

Frances Elizabeth Kemp nee Pinnuck was a cousin of my grandmother, Emma Ivall nee Armitage (1883-1970). Frances was a daughter of Alfred John Pinnuck (1863-97); Emma was a daughter of Ellen Armitage nee Pinnuck (1855-1913), a sister of Alfred.

Alfred John Pinnuck married Harriett Elizabeth Loveday on February 17th 1899 at St Matthias Church, Stoke Newington in London. They had four children but the only one to survive past the age of one was Frances. Alfred was a carpenter. The 1891 census shows him at 3 Shakespeare Road, Stoke Newington, the same address as his sister Ellen. It must have been crowded as there were 4 adults and 7 children living there. Later in 1891, Alfred and Harriett moved to Lambeth where Frances was born on October 6th 1892. She had a twin brother, Matthew Luke, who died in 1893 aged 6 months.

Alfred’s sisters Ellen and Mary Anne also had several children who died young. Ellen had 12 children of which only 7 were alive in 1911. Mary Anne had 11 children of which only 6 were alive in 1911. Most of these child deaths occurred in the first year of life and probably reflect overcrowded housing conditions and poor sanitation. The number of deaths in this branch of the Pinnuck family far exceeds the average rate of infant mortality in England and Wales at that time, which was about 150 deaths per thousand live births.

Sadly Alfred died in 1897 aged only 24, when Frances was 5. The 1901 census shows Frances (aged 8) living in Stoke Newington at 2 Pellerin Road (a dairy) with her mother Harriett, aged 32, a dairy manageress. Harriett died in July 1901, making Frances into an orphan. She went to live with Sarah Sophia Paul nee Pinnuck (1854-1916), who was Alfred Pinnuck’s eldest sister. Records of St Mary’s National School, Hitchen (in Hertfordshire) show that Frances was at the school from September 1901 until May 1907, when she reached the normal age (14) to leave. Her address was The Highlander, 45 Tilehouse Street, Hitchen, which was a pub run by Luke Paul, Sarah’s husband. It still operates as a pub under the same name.

The next record I have for Frances is the 1911 census where she is shown aged 18, living at 65 Byne Road, Sydenham at the house of her cousin Frances Elizabeth Weiste (37), the only child of Sarah and Luke Paul. Frances Elizabeth Paul had married Franz Friedrich Diedrich Weiste in 1899 and they had two daughters, Helena (b 1899) and Dorothea (b 1901). Diedrich is listed in 1911 as a rope turner, yarn and mat agent (employer). The house had 7 rooms, so apparently the Weiste family were comfortably off.

Frances later went to live in the house of John George Ernest Kemp, a hairdresser, in Camberwell. He had married Annie Mary Loveday, a sister of Frances’s mother Harriett, in 1893. Annie died in 1901 aged 28. The 1911 census shows John Kemp, a widower aged 39, living at 16 Waterloo Street, Camberwell with his sons George Henry Kemp (aged 17, a coffee porter) and Harold Jesse Kemp (aged 16, a printer). 

Frances married George Henry Kemp (born November 16th 1893) on April 20th 1914 in Camberwell Register Office. They were first cousins as their mothers were sisters. Frances was 21, George was 20, a clerk. They later had two children, Elsie Lillian born in 1915 and Barbara Frances in 1917, both in Camberwell. According to family stories, George was in the army during World War One, but suffered from shell shock (now called PTSD or post-traumatic stress disorder) and was not the same man when he returned.

George and Frances Kemp

George’s brother Harold Jesse Kemp (1894-1969) had immigrated to Canada in 1913. George and Frances decided to do the same and Canadian Passenger Lists (on Ancestry) show George (26), Frances (27), Elsie (5) and Barbara (3) on board the SS Grampian from London, arriving at Montreal on 15 May 1920. George’s previous occupation is shown as “driver, mechanic and clerk” and his intended one was farming. Ancestry has the passenger declarations for George and Frances. They say that their destination was the Manitoba Agricultural College, Winnipeg and that their passage was paid by an Overseas Settlement Voucher. The Overseas Settlement Scheme was set up in 1919 to offer free passage to ex-service men, with their wives and children, to British colonies. It lasted until 1922 and 86,000 migrants were assisted, of which 26,560 went to Canada.
 Passenger declaration completed by Frances in 1920

The 1921 Canada census shows George and Frances Kemp with their two children living in the house of John Grierson (aged 50), a farmer, in the rural municipality of Whitehead, Manitoba. This is a sparsely populated district of the Canadian prairies, about 140 miles west of Winnipeg. The nearest town is Brandon, 8 miles to the east. Here the winters are severe, with the daily mean temperature typically being -17 C in January, but the summers are warm. George was a city boy and found farming work hard. They had three more children namely Dorothy (b 1922), John “Jack” (b 1923) and Frank (b 1925). 
Frances with her daughters Elsie and Barbara

Sadly, Barbara Frances Kemp died in 1927 aged 10 in Alexander Manitoba, from complications due to diabetes. She was one of the first individuals to be given insulin developed by Canadian scientists Frederick Banting and Charles Best, but her symptoms were too severe for her to survive. The family then moved to Swift Current, Saskatchewan for George to work with his brother Harold Jesse Kemp. Harold had received a Bachelor of Science and Arts (BSA) degree in Agricultural Engineering and worked on the Experimental Station in Swift Current. Harold later invented several pieces of equipment for farmers.

Frances died in 1930 aged 38 from complications due to a miscarriage and is buried in Swift Current, Saskatchewan. Her daughter Elsie was then 15 years old and was needed at home to look after the smaller children.  She dropped out of school to do so. George eventually allowed his brother Harold and wife Eva to adopt the young boys.  George then married Alice Lydia Beresford and moved to British Columbia.  Soon afterwards, George, suffering from PTSD, left the family.  Elsie and Dorothy remained with their stepmother.
Dorothy, Elsie, Frank and Jack, after their mother died.

Unaware of what happened to George, it was assumed he had died.  Elsie eventually moved to Alberta and married Albert Joseph Wuttke (1894-1993).  They had two children.  Elsie died in 2005 aged 90. She is buried in Killam, a small town in Alberta, with her husband (there is a photo of the gravestone on the website Find A Grave).

Dorothy remained with her stepmother. She later married and started a family of her own, residing in British Columbia until her death in 1994.  They had 6 children. 

Both Jack and Frank worked in the agricultural industry like their uncle Harold. Jack moved to New Brunswick to work on the Dominion Government Research Station. There he and his wife Gwen raised 4 children.  He passed away in the early 1990’s. Frank remained in Saskatchewan. He passed away in 1983 while living in British Columbia.
Dorothy, Frank, Jack and Elsie in later life

As previously stated, the children were led to believe that their father, George had died. But, in 1979, a UK solicitor found among the belongings of George’s brother Albert, who had recently passed away, information on a brother (Harold Jesse) in Canada. Harold had passed away in 1969 so the letter was forwarded to Jack advising him of the death.  Jack, Frank, Dorothy and Elsie were the only surviving family of the deceased brother.  It was at this point that they discovered that their father had returned to England and passed away in 1967.

A UK National Register was compiled in 1939. It shows George Kemp (born November 16th 1893), a chemical and drug packer, living at 6 Beechwood Avenue, Orpington. This is a semi-detached house in a pleasant area on the edge of London. Also listed at the address was Louisa Kemp (born March 22nd 1895).

Sunday, 6 November 2016

Children of Robert Melton and Ellen Armitage

Robert Melton (1846-1910) and Ellen Armitage nee Pinnuck (1855-1913) married in 1876 and were my great parents. The 1911 census says that Ellen had 12 children, of which only 7 were alive on April 2nd 1911. Robert and his family are listed in the 1881, 1891 and 1901 censuses. From these, I found the names of eight children, of which only one (Percy) had died by 1911. The General Register Office has recently launched an online index of births from 1837 to 1915 which includes the mother’s maiden name. This has enabled me to find another three children (Luke, Albert and Maud) born to Robert and Ellen. The names I now know of are

1. LUKE ARMITAGE, b. Q3 (quarter 3) 1877, Holbeck, Yorkshire; d. September 1877, Holbeck, Yorkshire, aged 0. Holbeck is a district of Leeds. Luke was buried on September 25th 1877 in Churwell, a village which was then part of the Holbeck registration district.
2. ALBERT EDWARD ARMITAGE, b. Q2 1879, St Giles, London. His death is not registered, but he is not listed in the 1881 census and so had presumably died by then.
3. ROBERT MELTON ARMITAGE, b. 14 May 1881, Islington; d. 24 May 1916, Vimy Ridge, killed in action during WW1, aged 35.
4. EMMA ARMITAGE, b. 30 June 1883, Islington East; d. 2 October 1970, The Brook Hospital, Greenwich of bronchopneumonia, aged 87.
5. WILLIAM FREDERICK ARMITAGE, b. 9 July 1884, Islington; d. Q4 1940, Edmonton aged 56.
6. MAUD ETHEL ARMITAGE, b. Q2 1886, Islington; d. Q3 1886, Islington, aged 0.
7. FLORENCE EDITH ARMITAGE, b. 17 June 1887, Islington; d. 2 February 1945, Barnet aged 57 of heart disease and stroke.
8. GERTRUDE ELLEN ARMITAGE, b. 22 February 1889, South Hornsey, London; d. 28 February 1978, Ashford aged 89.
9. PERCY EDWIN ARMITAGE, b. Q4 1890, South Hornsey (Edmonton); d. Q1 1892, Edmonton aged 1.
10. ALFRED JOHN ARMITAGE, b. 14 February 1893, South Hornsey; d. Q3 1957, Hackney aged 64.
11. GEORGE HENRY ARMITAGE, b. 17 January 1898, South Hornsey; d. 28 August 1936, Malling by suicide resulting from depression caused by TB, aged 38.

I cannot find any record of Ellen’s 12th child. Apparently its birth was not registered.

Infant mortality rates in England and Wales between 1875 and 1900 were about 150 deaths per thousand live births. This high rate was a reflection of widespread poverty and the poor state of health of the population. Infant mortality dropped during the 20th century such that by 2000 the rate was only 6 deaths per thousand live births.